Adding, formatting and then configuring your Linux system to automatically mount a second hard drive isn\'t too difficult of a task. I will show you how to do this in a few quick and easy steps.
One thing I can\'t stand when I am trying to learn something new with Linux is having to read long and drawn out tutorials, articles and message board thread with people arguing and going off topic. I am a busy guy, and when I seek out information I like to get fast answers. I am sure you feel the same, so here goes:
That said, I also can\'t stand it when I see people asking legitimate questions and they get reprimanded for asking. If you have a question, by all means feel free to ask me. I will be happy to do what I can to help answer any questions you may have.
Before you can format the second hard drive and even dream of having your system automatically mount it each time you boot your system, you need to make sure that Linux sees it. To verify this simply open up a shell and change to the device directory. That\'s the /dev directory.
[email protected]:~# cd /dev [email protected]:/dev#
Once you have changed into the device directory you have a couple of options towards discovering if Linux sees your additional hard drive. The first way is to simply use the ls command, which stands for list the contents within a directory.
[email protected]:/dev# ls block mem sdc1 tty17 tty40 tty7 bsg net sdd tty18 tty41 tty8 cdrom network_latency sdd1 tty19 tty42 tty9 char network_throughput sg0 tty2 tty43 ttyS0 console null sg1 tty20 tty44 ttyS1 core port sg2 tty21 tty45 ttyS2 cpu_dma_latency ppp sg3 tty22 tty46 ttyS3 disk psaux sg4 tty23 tty47 urandom fd ptmx shm tty24 tty48 vcs fd0 pts snapshot tty25 tty49 vcs1 full random snd tty26 tty5 vcs2 hpet root sndstat tty27 tty50 vcs3 initctl rtc sr0 tty28 tty51 vcs4 input rtc0 stderr tty29 tty52 vcs5 kmsg scd0 stdin tty3 tty53 vcs6 log sda stdout tty30 tty54 vcsa loop0 sda1 tty tty31 tty55 vcsa1 loop1 sda2 tty0 tty32 tty56 vcsa2 loop2 sda5 tty1 tty33 tty57 vcsa3 loop3 sda6 tty10 tty34 tty58 vcsa4 loop4 sda7 tty11 tty35 tty59 vcsa5 loop5 sda8 tty12 tty36 tty6 vcsa6 loop6 sda9 tty13 tty37 tty60 vga_arbiter loop7 sdb tty14 tty38 tty61 xconsole MAKEDEV sdb1 tty15 tty39 tty62 zero mcelog sdc tty16 tty4 tty63 [email protected]:/dev#
The results can get a little crazy, especially if you are new to Linux. Basically what you are looking for are sd* or hd*. In most cases, sd* such as in my case: sda, sda1, sda2, sdb, sdb1, sdc, sdc1, sdd, sdd1, etc.
If the ls results are confusing, another way would be to add the grep command to filter out all the crap. The grep command is like the Google Search command of Linux within a shell. It\'s pretty powerful and can help you find things you need quickly. Make sure that you are in the device directory and then try this command instead:
[email protected]:/dev# grep sd* hd*
This will produce results like the ones shown below instead:
Binary file sda1 matches Binary file sda5 matches Binary file sda6 matches Binary file sda7 matches Binary file sda8 matches Binary file sda9 matches Binary file sdb matches Binary file sdb1 matches Binary file sdc matches Binary file sdc1 matches Binary file sdd matches Binary file sdd1 matches grep: hd*: No such file or directory [email protected]:/dev#
So what do these results mean? Well, in my case sda, sdb, sdc and sdd are found in the device directory. No devices with hd* were found. That means I have four hard drives installed. The numbers on the end are simply the partitions within each hard drive. sda is my main hard drive. When I installed Debian, I chose to have separate partitions. This can be reflected with the df command which basically means to display how much disk space you have used on each file system. The -h command added to df produces easy to read results. That command is df -h. Here\'s how that looks:
[email protected]:/dev# df -h Filesystem Size Used Avail Use% Mounted on /dev/sda1 323M 112M 195M 37% / tmpfs 252M 0 252M 0% /lib/init/rw udev 251M 124K 250M 1% /dev tmpfs 252M 0 252M 0% /dev/shm /dev/sda9 3.0G 69M 2.8G 3% /home /dev/sda8 249M 11M 226M 5% /tmp /dev/sda5 3.0G 481M 2.3G 17% /usr /dev/sda6 1.5G 198M 1.2G 15% /var /dev/sdb1 17G 173M 16G 2% /backup01 /dev/sdc1 17G 173M 16G 2% /backup02 /dev/sdd1 34G 177M 32G 1% /backup03 [email protected]:/dev#
In the results above, you will see that I have three backup directories: /backup01, /backup02 and /backup03. These are actually the three additional hard drives I have added to my system. The number 1 at the end of each represent the partition. When I formatted each drive, I chose to create one partition that uses the entire disk. Secondly, I chose to have the system automatically mount each drive into a /backup## directory that I created.
Step one is to basically check and see if your Linux system recognizes that your additional hard drive is there. All of the above information should help you verify if that is so. If Linux does not see your additional hard drive you may want to check to see if you have properly plugged it in and also check to see if the IDE or SATA cable is properly connected to the drive and motherboard. If the additional hard drive still doesn\'t appear, you might want to also check in BIOS to see if you have that particular drive port turned off.
After you have verified that your Linux system actually sees and recognizes the additional hard drive installed, the next step is to partition the drive. Just like the first step, Partitioning isn\'t too difficult either. Two ways to do this is by using the fdisk or cfdisk command. The latter seems a little easier in my opinion. Let\'s assume that the second drive you installed in your system is recognized as sdb. If it\'s a used hard drive, perhaps pulled from a Windows XP computer, Linux may already see partitions such as sdb1 and sdb2. These partitions are useless. In these next steps you are going to be erasing and repartitioning the hard drive. It\'s important to backup any old data from the hard drive if needed because you will be erasing all of the existing data from the drive.
The first step to partition the hard drive, as mentioned above is to either use fdisk or cfdisk. I find cfdisk much easier, so I am going to include the steps for that utility. To get started, type this command:
[email protected]:/dev# cfdisk /dev/sdb
Doing so, produces a new screen similar to this one shown below:
cfdisk (util-linux-ng 2.17.2) Disk Drive: /dev/sdb Size: 18209320960 bytes, 18.2 GB Heads: 64 Sectors per Track: 32 Cylinders: 17365 Name Flags Part Type FS Type [Label] Size (MB) ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ sdb1 Boot Primary Linux ext3 18208.53 [ Bootable ] [ Delete ] [ Help ] [ Maximize ] [ Print ] [ Quit ] [ Type ] [ Units ] [ Write ] Quit program without writing partition table
Now in my case, you will see that my second hard drive is already partitioned and configured bootable. The above illustrates the final product. At any rate, I am going to assume differently and use this drive to walk you thru the process. With the cfdisk utility opened and pointing to /dev/sdb you are going to want to delete any and all existing partitions. You can simply use the arrow keys on your keyboard to navigate to the [ Delete ] tab and proceed to delete every partition shown. The end result should look like this:
cfdisk (util-linux-ng 2.17.2) Disk Drive: /dev/sdb Size: 18209320960 bytes, 18.2 GB Heads: 64 Sectors per Track: 32 Cylinders: 17365 Name Flags Part Type FS Type [Label] Size (MB) ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ Pri/Log Free Space 18208.53 [ Help ] [ New ] [ Print ] [ Quit ] [ Units ] [ Write ] Create new partition from free space
Now with all the existing partitions deleted, it\'s time to create a new primary partition. In this example, I will be creating only ONE partition; however, you can create multiple logical partitions if you desire to. In my case, I have added additional hard drive to a Linux system for the purpose of backing up data from another Linux system in my office. I only want one partition per drive.
To create a new primary partition, use the arrow keys on your keyboard to toggle to the [ New ] tab and then hit enter. Next, choose [ Primary ] and then hit enter again to select the full disk size. The last two tasks are to select the correct type and to make the disk bootable. So toggle over to the [ Type ] tab and press enter on your keyboard. Doing so produces a screen like this:
01 FAT12 50 OnTrack DM AB Darwin boot 02 XENIX root 51 OnTrack DM6 Aux1 AF HFS / HFS+ 03 XENIX usr 52 CP/M B7 BSDI fs 04 FAT16 53 OnTrack DM6 Aux3 B8 BSDI swap 05 Extended 54 OnTrackDM6 BB Boot Wizard hidden 06 FAT16 55 EZ-Drive BE Solaris boot 07 HPFS/NTFS 56 Golden Bow BF Solaris 08 AIX 5C Priam Edisk C1 DRDOS/sec (FAT-12) 09 AIX bootable 61 SpeedStor C4 DRDOS/sec (FAT-16 < 0A OS/2 Boot Manager 63 GNU HURD or SysV C6 DRDOS/sec (FAT-16) 0B W95 FAT32 64 Novell Netware 286 C7 Syrinx 0C W95 FAT32 (LBA) 65 Novell Netware 386 DA Non-FS data 0E W95 FAT16 (LBA) 70 DiskSecure Multi-Boo DB CP/M / CTOS / ... 0F W95 Ext\'d (LBA) 75 PC/IX DE Dell Utility 10 OPUS 80 Old Minix DF BootIt 11 Hidden FAT12 81 Minix / old Linux E1 DOS access 12 Compaq diagnostics 82 Linux swap / Solaris E3 DOS R/O 14 Hidden FAT16 83 Linux E4 SpeedStor Press a key to continue
Basically this is a menu letting you know the codes for each different type of partition. It includes most all of the common partitions such as FAT32 and NTFS. The partition you want to use is Linux, which is code 83. Go ahead and press any key to continue and then this screen will appear next:
16 Hidden FAT16 84 OS/2 hidden C: drive EB BeOS fs 17 Hidden HPFS/NTFS 85 Linux extended EE GPT 18 AST SmartSleep 86 NTFS volume set EF EFI (FAT-12/16/32) 1B Hidden W95 FAT32 87 NTFS volume set F0 Linux/PA-RISC boot 1C Hidden W95 FAT32 (LB 88 Linux plaintext F1 SpeedStor 1E Hidden W95 FAT16 (LB 8E Linux LVM F4 SpeedStor 24 NEC DOS 93 Amoeba F2 DOS secondary 39 Plan 9 94 Amoeba BBT FB VMware VMFS 3C PartitionMagic recov 9F BSD/OS FC VMware VMKCORE 40 Venix 80286 A0 IBM Thinkpad hiberna FD Linux raid autodetec 41 PPC PReP Boot A5 FreeBSD FE LANstep 42 SFS A6 OpenBSD FF BBT 4D QNX4.x A7 NeXTSTEP 4E QNX4.x 2nd part A8 Darwin UFS 4F QNX4.x 3rd part A9 NetBSD Enter filesystem type: 83
By default, 82 may be shown. This is Linux Swap / Solaris. You do not want that. Instead, simply enter 82 and press enter. After doing that, you will be taken back to the main menu. The next step is to make the disk bootable. Do so by toggling to the [ Bootable ] tab. In fact, this should already be slected by default. Press enter on your keyboard and magically the disk is now bootable. The last and final step is to toggle to the [ Write ] tab, click enter and then type yes. This will write the changes to the disk. After this is done, toggle to the [ Quit ] tab and click enter. Congratulations! You have now erased and repartitioned your second hard drive. Let\'s move on to the next step of formatting your hard drive.
After verifying that your second hard drive is recognized by your Linux system, then correctly creating the proper Linux partition and making sure it\'s bootable; the next step is to format the hard drive. This, just like the previous two steps is fairly easy to do. Once again, lets assume that your second hard drive is recognized as sdb and that you have created a primary partition that is recognized as sdb1. To format the hard drive to use for Linux you will want to use either the ext2, ext3 or ext4 format. The latter is the most current; however, I generally prefer using ext3.
The command you need basically needs to tell your system to find the second hard drive, locate the primary partition on the second hard drive and to format it to ext3. The mkfs.ext3 command is what you need. Here\'s the command to enter:
[email protected]:~# mkfs.ext3 /dev/sdb1
Unlike formatting a drive using Microsoft Windows operating system, this only take a few moments, and here\'s what the results will look like once the disk has been formatted.
[email protected]:~# mkfs.ext3 /dev/sdb1 mke2fs 1.41.12 (17-May-2010) Filesystem label= OS type: Linux Block size=4096 (log=2) Fragment size=4096 (log=2) Stride=0 blocks, Stripe width=0 blocks 1111936 inodes, 4445436 blocks 222271 blocks (5.00%) reserved for the super user First data block=0 Maximum filesystem blocks=0 136 block groups 32768 blocks per group, 32768 fragments per group 8176 inodes per group Superblock backups stored on blocks: 32768, 98304, 163840, 229376, 294912, 819200, 884736, 1605632, 2654208, 4096000 Writing inode tables: done Creating journal (32768 blocks): done Writing superblocks and filesystem accounting information: done This filesystem will be automatically checked every 35 mounts or 180 days, whichever comes first. Use tune2fs -c or -i to override. [email protected]:~#
You\'re all done! The second hard drive has been formatted and now can be used in your Linux system. The next step is to command the system to automatically mount the drive when it boots up. Follow along and we\'ll do that next.
Now that you have successfully formatted your second hard drive for use in your Linux system, it\'s time to configure your system to automatically mount the drive each time you boot up your system. This is probably the most difficult step simply because it involves editing the fstab file. Messing this part up can easily make your system non-bootable, so be careful.
There\'s a few ways of going about this, but generally I prefer to automatically mount a hard drive by configuring the fstab file to look for UUID numbers. The first step towards automatically mounting your second hard drive is figuring out what the UUID number of primary partition of the second hard drive is. The command to use is ls -l /dev/disk/by-uuid/. Here\'s the command to enter:
[email protected]:~# ls -l /dev/disk/by-uuid/
This will produce results similar to the results shown below:
[email protected]:~# ls -l /dev/disk/by-uuid/ total 0 lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 10 Jul 19 09:36 0f3195b0-2bb2-491d-99eb-a0cf11039ed4 -> ../../sdd1 lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 10 Jul 19 09:36 1e3e581c-47b5-4cc5-a56e-2ef3ccbc5c4c -> ../../sda9 lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 10 Jul 19 09:36 4300bca4-ead0-4352-bf44-a2e7f803aa4b -> ../../sda8 lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 10 Jul 19 09:36 64481119-3a26-4449-8263-ac9248031d0b -> ../../sda5 lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 10 Jul 19 09:36 7352b0d8-b6af-4a3c-8ed2-b92db9b4aa2c -> ../../sda6 lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 10 Jul 19 09:36 872a369d-8b0a-45d0-90fb-e5563cdb892e -> ../../sda7 lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 10 Jul 19 09:36 9787804c-409a-499c-8029-cd36309099db -> ../../sdc1 lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 10 Jul 19 09:37 bf418ae1-c673-425b-ae22-2600978b6199 -> ../../sdb1 lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 10 Jul 19 09:36 c20b6bd8-a027-4647-a645-6ea9b5fd53cf -> ../../sda1 [email protected]:~#
In our example, we know that we created a primary partition on sdb and that partition has been recognized by the system as sdb1. So, based on the results above, the UUID number for sdb1 on my system is bf418ae1-c673-425b-ae22-2600978b6199.
lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 10 Jul 19 09:37 bf418ae1-c673-425b-ae22-2600978b6199 -> ../../sdb1
Now that we know the UUID number, we can now proceed to edit the fstab file. Basically what you are about to do is tell the system each time it boots up to look for this drive and the primary partition, and automatically mount it, and mount it to a directory that you have created. In my case, /backup01. That said, lets proceed to edit the fstab using nano. Here\'s the command to enter:
[email protected]:~# nano /etc/fstab
Doing so will open a screen similar to this:
GNU nano 2.2.4 File: /etc/fstab # /etc/fstab: static file system information. # # Use \'blkid\' to print the universally unique identifier for a # device; this may be used with UUID= as a more robust way to name devices # that works even if disks are added and removed. See fstab(5). # #
proc /proc proc defaults 0 0 # / was on /dev/sda1 during installation UUID=c20b6bd8-a027-4647-a645-6ea9b5fd53cf / ext3 errors=remount-ro 0 1 # /home was on /dev/sda9 during installation UUID=1e3e581c-47b5-4cc5-a56e-2ef3ccbc5c4c /home ext3 defaults 0 2 # /tmp was on /dev/sda8 during installation UUID=4300bca4-ead0-4352-bf44-a2e7f803aa4b /tmp ext3 defaults 0 2 # /usr was on /dev/sda5 during installation UUID=64481119-3a26-4449-8263-ac9248031d0b /usr ext3 defaults 0 2 # /var was on /dev/sda6 during installation UUID=7352b0d8-b6af-4a3c-8ed2-b92db9b4aa2c /var ext3 defaults 0 2 # swap was on /dev/sda7 during installation UUID=872a369d-8b0a-45d0-90fb-e5563cdb892e none swap sw 0 0 /dev/scd0 /media/cdrom0 udf,iso9660 user,noauto 0 0 /dev/fd0 /media/floppy0 auto rw,user,noauto 0 0 UUID=17813bf3-dd8e-4edd-aa24-9f198710408f /backup01 ext3 defaults 0 2 UUID=9787804c-409a-499c-8029-cd36309099db /backup02 ext3 defaults 0 2 UUID=0f3195b0-2bb2-491d-99eb-a0cf11039ed4 /backup03 ext3 defaults 0 2 ^G Get Help ^O WriteOut ^R Read File ^Y Prev Page ^K Cut Text ^C Cur Pos ^X Exit ^J Justify ^W Where Is ^V Next Page ^U UnCut Text ^T To Spell
Now, look at the very bottom of the file shown above. These are the three entries I added for the three additional hard drives I added into my system:
UUID=17813bf3-dd8e-4edd-aa24-9f198710408f /backup01 ext3 defaults 0 2 UUID=9787804c-409a-499c-8029-cd36309099db /backup02 ext3 defaults 0 2 UUID=0f3195b0-2bb2-491d-99eb-a0cf11039ed4 /backup03 ext3 defaults 0 2
Basically what you are doing is adding the new file system, which is identified by the UUID, telling the system where the mount point is and what the format is. So to do that, scroll to the bottom of the file and add UUID=############# then click tab on your keyboard. Then enter the mount point, which in my case is (or will be -- proceeding the next steps below) /backup01, then click tab on your keyboard. From there enter the format type of ext3, then click tab again and enter the word defaults, then click tab and then enter 0, then click tab again and then enter 2 and then you\'re done. Lastly, to save the edited file, hit the command key + the letter x on your keyboard to save the file.
Finally, before rebooting your system, you need to create the directory you assigned in the fstab file. Once again, in my case, the directory is /backup01. You will need to change to the root directory by typing cd / and then here\'s the command to type:
[email protected]:~# cd / [email protected]:/# mkdir /backup01 [email protected]:/#
Once you have made the directory, it\'s safe to reboot your system. Prior to doing so, you may want to manually attempt to mount the drive. You can do this by entering this command:
[email protected]:~# mount -t ext3 /dev/sdb1 /backup01
Doing so should produce results similar to those shown below:
[email protected]:~# df -h Filesystem Size Used Avail Use% Mounted on /dev/sda1 323M 112M 195M 37% / tmpfs 252M 0 252M 0% /lib/init/rw udev 251M 128K 250M 1% /dev tmpfs 252M 0 252M 0% /dev/shm /dev/sda9 3.0G 69M 2.8G 3% /home /dev/sda8 249M 11M 226M 5% /tmp /dev/sda5 3.0G 481M 2.3G 17% /usr /dev/sda6 1.5G 199M 1.2G 15% /var /dev/sdb1 17G 173M 16G 2% /backup01 /dev/sdc1 17G 173M 16G 2% /backup02 /dev/sdd1 34G 177M 32G 1% /backup03 [email protected]:~#
In the above results, you will see that /backup01 is mounted, which is basically the primary partition of the second hard drive. If you need help or have any questions, please feel free to use the comment form below. I will answer any questions you have and provide you with as much support as I can. Thanks for reading and following this tutorial, I really hope that my approach enabled you to find success with performing what many people consider to be a difficult task. My goal is to make the process as simple as possible while also balancing in some lessons on helping you see the bigger picture of how all this works. Feel free to let me know if this goal has been achieved.